Parents: John II, duke of Burgundy, and Margaret of Bavaria
Date of Birth: 31 July 1396
Spouse: (1) Michelle, daughter of Charles VI, king of France, and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, then (2) Bonne, daughter of Philip, count of Eu, and Marie, duchess of Auvergne, then (3) Isabella, daughter of John I, king of Portugal, and Philippa of Lancaster
Predecessor: John II (in Burgundy
Reign: 1419 – 1467
Summary: Philip may well be the most important figure in Burgundian history due to his inheritance of much of the Low Countries during his reign. He was married at the age of four to a French princess and, after she died, married two more women in quick succession. Only his third marriage, to a Portuguese princess, did he produce any children and only one, Charles, survived to succeed him. Philip, however, had at least eighteen illegitimate children, some of whom rose to prominence in the clergy. When Philip's father was assassinated in 1419, Philip became duke of Burgundy and count of Flanders, Artois and Franche-Comté. Since he suspected French involvement in the assassination, Philip allied himself with England during the Hundred Years' War.
Philip became famous in 1430 for capturing Joan of Arc at Compiègne and handing her over to the English where she was tried and burned at the stake for heresy. However, he largely stayed out of the war and eventually, in 1435, decided in favor of Charles VII as king of France against the claims of the English. In 1429, he purchased the marquisate of Namur, followed in 1432 with the conquest of Hainault, Holland, Frisia, and Zealand in what was known as the Hook and Cod War. The duchies of Brabant and Limburg as well as the margraviate of Antwerp were inherited in 1430, and Luxembourg was purchased in 1443. Many years later, in 1456, Philip installed his son as bishop of Utrecht and his nephew as prince-bishop of Liège. Thus, Philip controlled an area encompassing most of what is today Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg in one vast territory that became known as the Burgundian Inheritance. Philip's fame comes not entirely from his military conquests or expansion, but also from his famous royal court. The court of Burgundy flourished during his reign and the duke regularly changed capitals. His court was known as the most splendid in Europe and between the arts and the luxuries, it is no wonder that alliances with Burgundy were regularly sought. Philip died in 1467 after having fought a short war with France to ensure the succession of his son, Charles, who later became known as Charles the Bold and was the penultimate Valois dukes of Burgundy.
Date of Death: 15 June 1467
Other Monarch Deaths:
Robert I, king of France (923)
Go-Sanjo, emperor of Japan (1073)
Frederick II, duke of Austria (1246)
Andronikos III, emperor of Constantinople (1341)
John VI, emperor of Constantinople (1383)
Murad I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1389)
Frederick III, emperor of Germany (1888)