Date of Birth: 1438
Predecessor: Yadigar Muhammad
Reign: 1469 – 1506
Summary: A descendant of Timur the Great, Husayn Bayqarah possessed the same potential as most of the Timurids. His father was a relatively unsuccessful member of the family, but Husayn would prove differently. When his father died, Husayn entered the service of Babur, the ruler of Khurasan. Babur died in 1457 and Khurasan was invaded by the ruler of Samarkand, Abu Sa'id, a Timurid cousin. Husayn decided to go out on the lamb, becoming a mercenary for hire. He made a place for himself in the Gurgan, a former territory of the Black Sheep Turks. From there he began expanding his power base. He conquered Mazandaran and submitted to the overlordship of Abu Sa'id. But Abu Sa'id was distracted and Husayn acted, sieging Herat in 1460. He was defeated and fled, taking into his band of warriors Uzbeks seeking glory and plunder. Abu Sa'id died in 1469 and his small empire collapsed. Abu's son attempted to maintain control of Herat but could not against the separate attacks of relatives and the White Sheep Turks. In 1469, Husayn marched into Herat and took the city by force. This time, he was able to keep it and proclaimed himself sultan of Khurasan.
A brief invasion by the Black Sheep Turks in 1470 forced Husayn to flee but he returned after defeating Abu Sa'id's sons in open battle. The White Sheep Turks ceased harassing his borders and Samarkand was undergoing political strife and unable to mount a proper attack on Khurasan. He left his borders alone once secured, preferring his neighbors to attack each other then Khurasan. Husayn became a good ruler, building the region up with schools and administering sound judicial decisions. It is thought that throughout most of his reign, he was also sickly and remained at his capital. Internal conflicts were expected among the Timurids and that was the case with Husayn as well. His nephew's guardian, Darvis 'Ali, joined forces with another Timurid, Mahmud, in attacking Herat. His eldest son, Badi', also joined in this revolt. Both were defeated with his grandson, Muhammed, executed. Badi' was not punished but went on to attack Herat again in 1499. When the Uzbeks defeated Babur in 1501, Husayn's realm became the next target. At first he did not resist against the Uzbeks but by 1506, he had no choice. He died while marching to the battlefield. The sultanate was already at risk of collapse as his two sons, Badi' and Muzaffar Husain, fought over their inheritance, and it fell completely when the Uzbek's captured Herat the next year. The Timurids never regained control of Herat or surrounding Khurasan.
Date of Death: 4 May 1506
Successor: Badi' al-Zaman
Other Monarch Deaths:
Lorenzo II, duke of Urbino (1519)
Anthony Ulrich II, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1774)