Date of Birth: circa 1210
Royal House: Visconti
Predecessor: Clement IV
Reign: 1271 – 1276
Summary: Pope Gregory X is unique among popes in that he ascended the throne after a three year interregnum due to disagreement among the College of Cardinals. The disagreement stemmed from disputes over Italian or French control over the Kingdom of Sicily. Tebaldo Visconti was eventually chosen as a moderate since he was Italian but lived in the north, away from Sicilian politics. Tebaldo was not present at the time of his election as he was with Edward I, king of England, in Palestine.
As pope, Gregory X was a moderating presence. Returning from the Holy Land, he petitioned against Jewish persecution while he also wished to end the East-West Schism that had become solidified a few centuries prior. His most lasting reform, however, established regulatory laws for papal elections to avoid such a long interregnum in the future. Perhaps a more immediate gain, however, was the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Great Khanate of the Mongols and the Papacy. Upon the return of Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, diplomatic relations began between both Kublai Khan and Abaqa of the Ilkhanate in Iran. A joint-war Crusade was planned between the Ilkhanate and the Papal forces for a tenth Crusade when Gregory X died unexpectedly. The alliance never happened and no future crusade occurred.
Date of Death: 10 January 1276
Successor: Innocent V
Other Monarchs Who Died Today:
- Agatho, pope of Rome (681)
- John I Tzimiskes, emperor of Constantinople (976)
- Al-Mustansir, Abbasid caliph of Sunni Islam (1094)
- Honoré II, prince of Monaco (1662)
- Victor Emmanuel I, king of Sardinia (1824)