Biographies

The following is a regularly-updated list of all monarch biographies written for the Monarch-of-the-Day series here on Dynastology. It is organized alphabetically by country (in italics) and then organized by dates of reign, with some exceptions.

The Imamate of Adal
Ahmad (1527 – 1543)

The Emirate of Afghanistan
Abdur Rahman Khan (1880 – 1901)

The Kingdom of Afghanistan
Mohammed Zahir Shah (1933 – 1973)

The Principality of Albania
Vidi I Skanderbeg II (1914)
Leka I (Titular: 1961 – 2011)

The Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria
St. Peter (300 – 311)
Dioscorus I (444 – 454)

The Imperial Patriarchate of Alexandria
Dioscorus I (444 – 451)

The Kingdom of Amber 
Jai Singh II (1699 – 1723)

The Kingdom of Angola (Ndongo & Matamba)
Nzinga (1624 – 1663)

The County of Anjou
Geoffrey V (1129 – 1151)

The Duchy of Aquitaine
William I (893 – 918)
William V (990 – 1030)
Eleanor (1137 – 1204)

The Duchy of Apulia
Roger (1085 – 1111)

The Kingdom of Aragón
Petronilla (1137 – 1164)
Alfonso III (1285 – 1291)
Jaime II (1291 – 1327)
Alfonso V (1416 – 1458)
Juan II (1458 – 1479)

The Kingdom of Armenian Cilicia
Leon II (1198 – 1219)
Jacques I (1382 – 1398)

The Duchy of Athens
Gautier V (1308 – 1311)

The Duchy of Austria
Herman (1248 – 1250)
Leopold IV (1386 – 1411)

The Archduchy of Austria
Ferdinand Charles (Further Austria: 1630 – 1662)
Maria Theresa (1740 – 1780)

The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire
Francis II (1804 – 1835)
Otto (Titular: 1922 – 2011)

The Aztec Empire
Moctezuma II (1502 – 1520)

The Margraviate of Baden-Baden
Herman VI (1243 – 1250)

The Emirate of Bahrain
Isa (1971 – 1999)

The County of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV (1131 – 1162)

The Duchy of Bavaria
Henry X (1126 – 1138)
Maximilian I (1597 – 1651)
Albert IV (Leuchtenburg: 1646 – 1650)
William V (1579 – 1597)

The Kingdom of Bavaria
Ludwig I (1825 – 1848)

The Kingdom of the Belgians
Leopold I (1831 – 1865)

The Sultanate of Bengal
Sulaiman Khan (1566 – 1572)

The Kingdom of Bharatpur
Suraq Mal (1756 – 1763)

The Kingdom of Bhutan
Jigme Dorji (1952 – 1972)

The County of Blois
Stephen II (1089 – 1102)

The Duchy of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I (921 – 935)

The Kingdom of Bohemia
Vratislaus II (1061 – 1092)
John (1310 – 1346)
George (1458 – 1471)
Maria Theresa (1740 – 1780)

The Kingdom of Bosnia
Stephen I (1377 – 1391)

The Duchy of Brabant
John I (1267 – 1294)
Antoine (1406 – 1415)
John IV (1415 – 1427)

The Margraviate of Brandenburg
Joachim III Friedrich (1598 – 1608)

The Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach
George (1536 – 1543)

The Duchy of Brittany
Nominoë (831 – 851)
Constance (1171 – 1194)
John I (1221 – 1286)
John II (1286 – 1305)

The Emirate of Bukhara
Mohammed Alim Khan (1911 – 1920)

The Duchy of Burgundy
Robert I (1032 – 1076)
Philip III (1419 – 1467)

The Kingdom of Burma
Tabinshwehti (1530 – 1550)
Nyaungyan Min (1599 – 1606)
Thibaw Min (1878 – 1885)

The Sunni Caliphate
Muhammad the Prophet (622 – 632)
Muaqiyah I (661 – 680)
Harun al-Rashid (786 — 809)

The Kingdom of Castile
Alfonso VIII (1158 – 1214)

The Kingdom of Castile & León
Pedro I (1350 – 1369)
Isabel I (1476 – 1504)

The Empire of China
Shi Huang (221 – 210 BCE)
Hongwu (69 – 79)
Sima Yun (Usurper: 301)
Yuan (318 – 323)
Wu (690 – 705)
Huaizong (1278 – 1279)
Chengzong (1294 – 1307)
Taichang (1620)
Jiaqing (1796 – 1820)

The Archbishopric of Cologne
Rainald (1159 – 1167)
Adolf I (1193 – 1205)
St. Engelbert I (1216 – 1225)

The Patriarchate of Constantinople
St. Anatolius (451 – 458)
St. Eutychius (552 – 565, 577 – 582)
St. Nicephorus (806 – 815)
St. Photios I (858 – 867, 877 – 886)
Theophylact (933 – 956)

The Lordship of Cyprus
Robert (1191 – 1193)

The Kingdom of Cyprus
Peter I (1358 – 1369)
Jacques I (1382 – 1398)

The Emirate of Damascus
Al-Adil I (1196 – 1218)

The Kingdom of Denmark
Cnut II (1018 – 1035)
Niels (1104 – 1134)
Valdemar IV (1340 – 1375)
Olav II (1376 – 1387)

The Kingdom of East Anglia
St. Edmund (855 – 869)

The Kingdom of England
Edgar I (959 – 975)
Cnut (1016 – 1035)
Harold I (1035 – 1040)
Edward IV (1461 – 1470, 1471 – 1483)
Mary I (1553 – 1558)

The Ancient Kingdom of Egypt
Thutmose III (1479 – 1425 BCE)

The Sultanate of Egypt
Saladin (1171 – 1193)
Al-Adil I (1199 – 1218)

The Khedivate of Egypt
Tewfik Pasha (1879 – 1892)

The Empire of Ethiopia
Admas Sagad I (1559 – 1563)
Menelek II (1889 – 1913)
Tewditu (1916 – 1930)
Haile Selassie (1930 – 1974)

The Fatimid Caliphate
Ali az-Zahir (1021 – 1036)

The County of Flanders
Arnulf II (965 – 987)
William (1127 – 1128)

The Duchy of Florence
Piero (1464 – 1469)
Alessandro (1530 – 1537)

The Kingship of All the Franks
Dagobert I (629 – 634)

The Mayor of the Palace of the Franks
Charles (717 – 741)

The Kingdship of the Franks in East Francia
Louis IV (899 – 911)

The Kingship of the Franks in West Francia
Charles II (840 – 877)
Lothair (954 – 986)
Louis V (986 – 987)

The Kingdom of France
Philippe II (1180 – 1223)
Philippe VI (1328 – 1350)
Charles VIII (1483 – 1498)
François II (1559 – 1560)

The Kingdom of France & Navarre
Louis XIV (1643 – 1715)

The Second French Empire
Napoleon III (1852 – 1870)

The County of Geneva
Robert (1393 – 1394)

The Kingdom of Georgia
Giorgi I (1014 – 1027)
Tamar (1184 – 1213)
Demetre II (1270 – 1289)

The Empire of Germany
Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918)

The Duchy of Guelders
Charles II (1492 – 1538)

The Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gruffydd (1039 – 1063)
Llywelyn (1195 – 1240)

The County of Hainaut
John I (1246 – 1257)

The Kingdom of Hawai'i
Lili'oukalani (1891 – 1893)

The Landgraviate of Hesse
Henry I (1247 – 1308)
Philip I (1509 – 1567)

The County of Holland
Dirk III (993 – 1039)

The Holy Roman Empire
Charles II (875 – 877)
Lambert (892 – 898)
Berengar (915 – 924)
Otto I (936 – 973)
Maximilian I (1493 – 1519)
Francis II (1792 – 1806)

The Kingdom of Hungary
St. Ladislaus I (1077 – 1095)
Géza II (1141 – 1162)
Charles I (1312 – 1342)
John (1511 – 1540)

The Olubadanate of Ibadan
Isaac Babalola Akinyele (1955 – 1964)

The Imamate of Shi'a Islam
Muhammad the Prophet (622 – 632)
Hussein (669 – 680)
Hasan al-'Askari (868 – 874)

The Incan Empire
Atahualpa (1532 – 1533)

The Empire of Iran
Mohammad Reza (1941 – 1979) 

The High Kingship of Ireland
Brian Boru (1002 – 1014)
Edward (1315 – 1318)

The Kingdom of the Isles
Ragnvald Godredsson (1187 – 1226)

The Kingdom of Italy
Totila (541 – 552)
Justinian (553 – 565)
Alboin (565 – 572)

The Savoyard Kingdom of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III (1900 – 1946)

The Empire of Japan
Yuryaku (456 – 479)
Bidatsu (572 – 585)
Gensho (715 – 724)
Go-Daigo (1318 – 1339)
Go-Murakami (1339 – 1368)
Go-Kameyama (1383 – 1392)
Go-Tsuchimikado (1464 – 1500)
Meisho (1629 – 1643)
Higashiyama (1687 – 1709)

Daimyoates in Japan
Yoshitaka (1528 – 1551)
Hisahide (1560s – 1577)
Kiyohide (1570s – 1583)

The Shogunate of Japan

The Kingdom of Jordan
Talal (1951 – 1952)

The Kingdom of Juipur
Jai Singh II (1723 – 1743)

The Kingdom of Kent
Æthelberht (590 – 616)

The Sultanate of Khurasan
Husayn Bayqarah (1469 – 1506)

The Grand Principality of Kiev
Mstislav I (1125 – 1132)
Mikhail (1236 – 1240, 1240, 1241 – 1243)

The Chivalric Order of the Knights Templar
Robert de Sablé (1191 – 1193)

The Empire of Korea
Sejong (1418 – 1450)
Gojong (1863 – 1907)

The Latin Empire at Constantinople
Henry (1206 – 1216)

The Emirate of Lebanon
Fakhr-al-Din II (1617 – 1735)

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Vytautas (1392 – 1430)

The Kingdom of Livonia
Magnus (1570 – 1578)

The Kingdom of the Lombards
Alboin (565 – 572)

The Kingdom of León & Castile
Urraca (1109 – 1126)

The Kingdom of Lorraine (Lotharingia)
Lothaire II (855 – 869)
Zwentibold (895 – 900)
Louis IV (900 – 911)

The Duchy of Lorraine
Simon I (1115 – 1138)
Theobald II (1303 – 1312)
Isabella (1431 – 1453)
Antoine (1508 – 1544)

The County of Luxembourg
John (1313 – 1346)

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Marie-Adélaïde (1912 – 1919)
Charlotte (1919 – 1964)

The Kingdom of Macedon
Alexander III (336 – 323 BCE)

The Archbishopric of Mainz
St. Rabanus Maurus (848 – 856)
Hatto I (891 – 913)
Albert (1514 – 1545)

The Kingdom of Malaysia
Salahuddin (1999 – 2001)

The Maratha Empire
Shivaji (1674 – 1680)

The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg
George Alexander (Titular: 1963 – 1996)

The Kingdom of Mercia
Offa (575 – 596)

The Margraviate of Meissen
Albert II (1288 – 1292)

The First Mexican Empire
Agustín I (1822 – 1823)

The Second Mexican Empire
Maximilian (1864 – 1867)

The Lordship of Milan
Gian Galeazzo (1378 – 1395)

The Duchy of Milan
Gian Galeazzo (1395 – 1402)
Galeazzo (1466 – 1476)

The Principality of Moldavia
Stefan III (1457 – 1504)

The Principality of Monaco
Louis II (1922 – 1949)
Rainier III (1949 – 2005)

The Mongolian Empire
Genghis Khan (1206 – 1227)
Ögedei (1228 – 1241)
Möngke Khan (1251 – 1259)
Chengzong (1294 – 1307)

The Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro
Danilo I (1697 – 1735)

The Margraviate of Montferrat
Theodore I (1305 – 1338)

The Emirate of Morocco
Ya'qub al-Mansur (1184 – 1199)

The Sultanate of Morocco
Abu al-Hasan (1331 – 1351)

The Kingdom of Naples
Joan I (1343 – 1382)
Alfonso II (1494 – 1495)

The Kingdom of Navarre
Sancho III (1004 – 1035)
Jeanne I (1285 – 1305)
Henry II (1517 – 1555)

The Kingdom of Nepal
Tribhuvan (1911 – 1955)

The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina (1890 – 1948)

The Principality of Neuchâtal

The Kingdom of Norway
Cnut I (1028 – 1035)
Harald III (1046 – 1066)
Sverre (1184 – 1202)
Håkon V (1299 – 1319)
Olav IV (1380 – 1387)
Charles I (1449 – 1450)

The Principality of Orange
William II (1647 – 1650)

The Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
Totila (541 – 552)

The Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire
Mehmed III (1595 – 1603)
Ibrahim I (1640 – 1648)
Mehmed VI (1918 – 1922)

The Chiefdom of the Ottowa
Pontiac (1747 – 1769)

The Palatinate of the Rhine
Charles II (1680 – 1685)

The Roman Papacy
St. Caius (283 – 296)
St. Mark (336)
John III (561 – 574)
Lucius II (1144 – 1145)
Anastasius IV (1153 – 1154)
Gregory X (1271 – 1276)
Innocent V (1276)
Martin IV (1281 – 1285)
Clement VII (Avignon: 1378 – 1394)
Innocent VIII (1484 – 1492)
Alexander IV (1492 – 1503)
St. Pius V (1566 – 1572)
Paul V (1605 – 1621)
Pius VII (1800 – 1823)

The Duchy of Parma
Ranuccio I (1592 – 1622)

The Empire of Persia
Tughril (1016 – 1063)
Alp Arslan (1063 – 1072)
Ismail I (1507 – 1524)

The Kingdom of Poland
John (Pretender: 1313 – 1335)
Casimir III (1333 – 1370)

The Kingdom of Poland & Grand Duchy of Lithuania
John III (1674 – 1696)

The Kingdom of Portugal
Afonso I (1139 – 1185)
Afonso IV (1325 - 1357)
Sebastião (1557 – 1578)
Henrique (1578 – 1580)
Filipe I (1580 – 1598)
João V (1706 – 1750)
Maria II (1826 – 1828, 1834 – 1853)

The County of Provence
Ramon Berenguer IV (1209 – 1245)

The Kingdom of Prussia
Frederick William III (1786 – 1797)
Frederick William IV (1840 – 1861)

The Mayan Kingdom of Q'umarkaj
Tecún Umán (1523 – 1524)

The Roman Empire (Rome)
Mark Antony (Triumvir: 43 – 33 BCE)
Galba (68 – 69)
Vespasian (69 – 79)
Nerva (96 – 98)
Commodus (180 – 192)
Gordian I (238)
Julian (361 – 363)
Jovian (363 – 364)
Magnus Maximus (384 – 387)
Eugenius (Usurper: 393 – 394)
Honorius (393 – 423)
Valentinian III (425 – 455)

The Roman Empire (Constantinople)
Justinian I (527 – 565)
Irene (797 – 802)
Michael V (1041 – 1042)
John II (1118 – 1143)
Andronikos II (1272 – 1328)
Constantine XI (1448 – 1453)

The Kingdom of Romania
Ferdinand I (1914 – 1927)

The Empire of Russia
Michael I (1613 – 1645)
Catherine I (1725 – 1727)
Anna (1730 – 1740)
Elizabeth (1741 – 1762)
Alexander I (1801 – 1825)
Nicholas II (1894 – 1917)

The Archbishopric of Salzburg
Hieronymus (1772 – 1812)

The Independent State of Samoa
Tanumafili II (1940 – 2007)

The Kingdom of Sardinia
Victor Amadeus III (1773 – 1796)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Faisal (1964 – 1975)

The Duchy of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert (1553 – 1580)
Charles Emmanuel II (1638 – 1675)

The Duchy of Saxony
Bernard I (973 – 1011)
Henry II (1137 – 1139)

The Electorate of Saxony
John George IV (1681 – 1684)

The Kingdom of Saxony
Herman (961 – 973)
Frederick Augustus I (1806 – 1827)

The Serbian Empire
Stephen IV (1346 – 1355)

The Kingdom of Serbia
Milan I (1868 – 1889)

The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes
Alexander (1921 – 1929)

The Kingship of the Scots
Edgar (1097 – 1107)
Malcolm IV (1153 – 1165)
Robert I (1306 – 1329)
James II (1437 – 1460)
Mary I (1542 – 1567)

The Kingdom of Siam (Thailand)
Narai (1656 – 1688)
Chulalongkorn (1868 – 1910)

The Kingdom of Sicily
Constance (1194 – 1198)
Manfred (1258 – 1266)

The Chiefdom of the Miniconjou Sioux
Spotted Elk (1877 – 1890)

The Kingdom of Spain
Felipe II (1556 – 1598)
Carlos II (1665 – 1700)
Ferdinand VII (1808, 1813 – 1833)
Isabella II (1833 – 1868)

The Kingdom of Sparta
Leonidas I (489 – 480 BCE)

The Duchy of Spoleto
Lambert II (894 – 898)

The Duchy of Swabia
Burchard II (917 – 926)

The Paramount Chiefdom of the Swasi
Sobhuza II (1899 – 1968)

The Kingdom of Swaziland
Sobhuza II (1968 – 1982)

The Kingdom of Sweden
Olav II (Pretender: 1376 – 1387)
Charles VIII (1449 – 1457, 1464 – 1465, 1467 – 1470)
Sten Sture (Regent: 1512 – 1520)
Kristina (1632 – 1654)
Adolf Frederick (1751 – 1771)
Gustav V (1907 – 1950)
Gustaf VI (1950 – 1973)

The Timurid Empire at Samarkand

The Landgrave of Thuringia
Henry Raspe (1241 – 1247)

The Dalai Lama of Tibet
Trinley (1858 – 1875)

The County of Toulouse
Ramon VI (1194 – 1222)

The Margraviate of Tuscany
Matilda (1055  – 1115)
Henry (1137 – 1139)

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Cosimo II (1569 – 1574)
Leopold II (1824 – 1859)

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I (1759 – 1825)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland
Victoria (1837 – 1901)

The United Provinces of the Netherlands
Frederick Henry (1625 – 1647)

The Taifa of Valencia
Rodrigo (1094 – 1099)

The Kingdom of the Vandals & Alans
Geiseric (428 – 477)
Huneric (477 – 484)

The Republic of Venice
Pietro I Candiano (887)
Enrico Dandolo (1193 – 1205)

The County of Vermandois
Herbert II (907 – 943)

The Empire of Vietnam
Gia Long (1802 – 1820)
Thieu Tri (1841 – 1847)
Bao Dai (1926 – 1945)

The Kingdom of the Visigoths
Theodoric I (418 – 451)

The Grand Principality of Vladimir
Konstantin (1216 – 1218)
Mikhail (1308 – 1316)

The Principality of Wallachia
Vlad III (1556 – 1576)

The Principality of Wales
Gruffydd (King: 1055 – 1063)
Dafydd I (Prince: 1240 – 1246)
Dafydd II (Prince: 1282 – 1283)

The Kingdom of Wessex
Ælfred (871 – 899)

The Duchy of Württemberg
Frederick III (1797 – 1805)

The Electorate of Württemberg
Frederick (1805 – 1807)

The Kingdom of Württemberg
Frederick I (1807 – 1816)

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Alexander I (1929 – 1934)

The Sultanate of Zanzibar
Barghash (1870 – 1888)

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